So far, the researchers argue that meant in letter-prescription use of the expression “final solution of the Jewish question.” Some believe that this does not mean “destruction” and, for example, deportation. To decipher these words, we should remember that the “final decision” is not preceded by one year of “phasing”, passed several stages “solution of the Jewish question”.
First anti-Jewish ideas of Hitler put forward in the letter of 16 September 1919, known as the “First political composition of Hitler. »
In this document he called the problem of” Jewish race “the main source of danger for Germany and for the peoples of the world and points to anti-Semitism as the only solution to this problem.
At the first stage it offers a systematic struggle against the Jews by the anti-Jewish legislation, on the second – puts “the ultimate goal – the elimination of the Jews in general.” Hitler wrote that “Judaism – is a certain race and not a religious group. As a result, we live among non-Germanic race with their own feelings, thoughts and aspirations, and has the same rights as we do. ” Even then, Hitler expressed the idea that to solve the “Jewish question” can a strong state, which would deprive the Jews of their civil rights. However, the ultimate goal, he stressed, “must be complete and uncompromising removal of the Jews”, in anticipation of their policies after coming to power.
gradual transition from theory to practice began with the coming to power of Hitler’s January 30, 1933. From that moment almost every year began to make decisions that lead to the formation of the repressive apparatus, focused mainly on the fight against “the widespread Jewish domination” as it liked to call the Third Reich. While talking about the dominance is not quite correct: by 1933 in Germany there were about half a million Jews, which was only about 1% of the total population of the country
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The aim of the first legislative acts was getting rid of the Jewish people in the bureaucracy
accepted the so-called “law. the “Aryanization” of civil servants “, in accordance with which to occupy an official post can only Aryan, ie a German who can document prove their Aryan origin.
The following legally adopted regulations have been associated with Nuremberg racial laws. September 15, 1935 at a meeting of the Party Congress in Nuremberg taken two crucial pieces of legislation. The first act is linked to the introduction of political restrictions for persons of Jewish nationality: they are deprived of basic political rights. The second act was devoted to the establishment of a ban on mixed marriages between Aryans and non-Aryans. Punishment subject they both because impair the Aryan nation.
There is legislating discriminatory tenets of the ideology of the Third Reich. The next step was the Kristallnacht of 1938, one of the organizers of which was Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Gestapo, and from September 1939 – Head of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA). This event marked the beginning of the final solution of the Jewish question.
Jewish pogroms swept the whole of Germany.
Of course, it happened earlier, but were local in nature, depending on a particular territory. Who are these riots gained national character. The reason for this reaction was the murder of an immigrant Jewish German diplomat in Paris. In response, the German public has already appeared under the influence of the ideology of the state, it has reacted in this way. Overnight, there was arson of synagogues across Germany, 267 of them burned to the ground, most of the Jewish shops and stores were destroyed, about 100 people were killed. The country began to reign state terror. After Kristallnacht in concentration camps began to direct German Jews only because of their nationality
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But still the main victims of which are connected with the Holocaust, concern, of course, the European Jewry. Since the inclusion of Austria in 1938, a part of Germany, and later joining the Sudetenland to Germany, and in 1939 already with the emergence of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia starts on arrests measures and displacement of the Jewish population with jobs and professions.
In 1936, Hitler ordered to Hermann Göring, Minister of aviation, and from 1940 – Reichsmarschall, the implementation of the so-called Four year plan – the transfer of the country on a war footing. In the hands of one person, all the German economy was concentrated
Concern “Hermann Goering Werke,” created in 1937, it has taken in charge by the numerous confiscated plants Jews and later. – factories in the occupied territories.
But a particular fondness Goering had for art objects, many of which were collected by the Jews and now they could be and were also shamelessly confiscated. As reported to one of the officials of the German military administration in Paris, “Field Marshal Goering’s special train consisted of twenty-five wagons, filled with the most valuable works of art.” It is interesting that before the attack on Russia in June 1941, Hering has developed a detailed program of plunder of its territories. The first line of text of the program read: “According to the order of the Fuhrer is necessary to take all measures for an immediate and full use of the occupied areas in the interest of Germany …»
In January 1939, Reinhard Heydrich proposed to establish in Berlin Reich Central Office for Jewish emigration, designed to comprehensively regulate the emigration of Jews and authorized to give them permission to leave
After the war began in 1939, Heydrich, together with Heinrich Himmler, Reichsfuhrer SS, headed the Einsatzgruppen -. paramilitary death squads, whose purpose was to “solve the Jewish question “in the German-occupied territories of the countries of Europe and the Soviet Union.
Thus, the implementation of the Nazi anti-Jewish policy was given into the hands of Heydrich and the SS.
at the end of September, Heydrich ordered the focus of Polish Jews in the ghetto and organize Jewish councils – Judenrats. On his orders, the Jews concentrated in large cities near transport lines, waiting for the next stage of the “final solution»
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Finally, July 31, 1941 Goring signed a decree on the appointment of Heydrich responsible for the “final solution of the Jewish question” in Europe, which involves the destruction of nearly 20 million people. Perhaps this requirement in addition to the implementation of the Nazi dream – destroy “poisoner of all peoples of the world” – was also a material interest. That is why the letter Heydrich signed not Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler, it would be quite logical, as Reich Marshal Goering.
As instructed Heydrich instructed to “make all necessary preparations for the organizational, economic and financial security of the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe and in the territories under the control of Germany. ” Heydrich was also authorized to provide in the near future a common action plan to address this issue.
Prescription Goering had dire consequences. In January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference was approved by the program Heydrich about the “final solution of the Jewish question”, meant the destruction of the Jews throughout subservient to Nazi Germany territory.
This decision was not advertised, and few, including the future victims, could believe that in the XX century is possible.
The Jews of Germany, France, Holland, Belgium sent to the east, in the camps and ghettos in Poland and Belarus, telling them about the temporality of such relocation. In Poland, the death camps were established, which were not even accommodate large numbers of people – only on immediate destruction of newcomers. Since then, the victims went through not thousands or even hundreds of thousands. From 4 to 8 million – as estimated, according to various estimates, the number of victims among the Jewish population